a subunit of NF-kappa-B transcription complex, which plays a crucial role in inflammatory and immune responses. The inhibitory effect of I-kappa-B upon NF-kappa-B in the cytoplasm is exerted primarily through the interaction with p65. P65 shows a weak DNA-binding site which could contribute directly to DNA binding in the NF-kappa-B complex. There are five NFkB proteins in mammals (RelA/NFkB-p65, RelB, c-Rel, NF-_B1/NFkB-p105, and NF-_B2/NFkB-p100). They form a variety of homodimers and heterodimers, each of which activates its own characteristic set of genes. Three splice-variant isoforms have been identified. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Transcription factor; DNA binding protein; Nuclear receptor co-regulator
Cellular Component: transcription factor complex; protein complex; cytoplasm; cytosol; nucleus
Molecular Function: RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, enhancer binding; identical protein binding; NF-kappaB binding; protein binding; enzyme binding; transcription activator binding; DNA binding; sequence-specific DNA binding; ubiquitin protein ligase binding; protein complex binding; protein N-terminus binding; chromatin binding; phosphate binding; transcription factor binding; protein kinase binding; transcription factor activity
Biological Process: transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; positive regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; negative regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway; defense response; negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; activation of NF-kappaB transcription factor; response to organic substance; hair follicle development; regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; positive regulation of cell proliferation; inflammatory response; positive regulation of Schwann cell differentiation; positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade; transcription, DNA-dependent; cytokine and chemokine mediated signaling pathway; liver development; response to UV-B; regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; organ morphogenesis; positive regulation of chondrocyte differentiation; positive regulation of interleukin-12 biosynthetic process; response to bacterium; response to muramyl dipeptide; regulation of inflammatory response; positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; negative regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; negative regulation of protein catabolic process; negative regulation of apoptosis
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.