a transmembrane solute carrier protein that transports L-type amino acids and regulates intracellular calcium levels. Involved in sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of large neutral amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and tryptophan. Involved in guiding and targeting of LAT1 and LAT2 to the plasma membrane. When associated with SLC7A6 or SLC7A7 acts as an arginine/glutamine exchanger, following an antiport mechanism for amino acid transport, influencing arginine release in exchange for extracellular amino acids. Plays a role in nitric oxide synthesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) via transport of L-arginine. Required for normal and neoplastic cell growth. When associated with SLC7A5, is also involved in the transport of L-DOPA across the blood-brain barrier, and that of thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) across the cell membrane in tissues such as placenta. Involved in the uptake of methylmercury (MeHg) when administered as the L-cysteine or D,L-homocysteine complexes, and hence plays a role in metal ion homeostasis and toxicity. When associated with SLC7A5 or SLC7A8, involved in the cellular activity of small molecular weight nitrosothiols, via the stereoselective transport of L- nitrosocysteine (L-CNSO) across the transmembrane. Together with ICAM1, regulates the transport activity LAT2 in polarized intestinal cells, by generating and delivering intracellular signals. When associated with SLC7A5, plays an important role in transporting L-leucine from the circulating blood to the retina across the inner blood-retinal barrier. Disulfide-linked heterodimer of a glycosylated heavy chain and a non-glycosylated light chain (SLC7A5, SLC7A6, SLCA7A7, SLC7A8, SLC7A10 or SLCA7A11). Colocalizes with cadherins. Interacts with FAM57A and ICAM1. Constitutively and specifically associates with beta-1 integrins (alpha-2/beta-1, alpha-3/beta-1, alpha-5/beta-1 and alpha-6/beta-1), but minimally with alpha-4/beta-1. Expression is induced in resting peripheral blood T- lymphocytes following PHA stimulation. Expression increases at the time of maximal DNA synthesi, in fibroblasts stimulated to divide. Expression and the uptake of leucine is stimulated in mononuclear, cytotrophoblast-like choriocarcinoma cells by combined treatment with PMA and calcium ionophore. Expressed ubiquitously in all tissues tested with highest levels detected in kidney, placenta and testis and weakest level in thymus. During gestation, expression in the placenta was significantly stronger at full-term than at the mid- trimester stage. Belongs to the SLC3A transporter family. 4 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Transporter; Membrane protein, integral
Cellular Component: cytoplasm; apical plasma membrane; melanosome; plasma membrane; integral to membrane; nucleus; cell junction
Alt. Names/Synonyms: 4F2; 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain; 4F2 heavy chain antigen; 4F2hc; 4T2HC; antigen defined by monoclonal antibody 4F2, heavy chain; antigen identified by monoclonal antibodies 4F2, TRA1.10, TROP4, and T43; CD98; CD98 heavy chain; CD98HC; heavy chain; Lymphocyte activation antigen 4F2 large subunit; MDU1; monoclonal antibody 44D7; NACAE; SLC3A2; solute carrier family 3 (activators of dibasic and neutral amino acid transport), member 2; solute carrier family 3, member 2
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.