is a catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), aubiquitous cytosolic serine-threonine phosphatase. Composed of a catalytic subunit (PPP1CA, PPP1CB or PPP1CC) which is folded into its native form by inhibitor 2 and glycogen synthetase kinase 3, and then complexed to one or several targeting (or regulatory) subunits: PPP1R12A and PPP1R12B mediate binding to myosin; PPP1R3A, PPP1R3B, PPP1R3C and PPP1R3D mediate binding to glycogen; and PPP1R15A and PPP1R15B mediate binding to EIF2S1. PP1 is essential for cell division, plays critical roles in many cellular processes including glycogen metabolism, muscle contractility and protein synthesis, and is involved in the regulation of ionic conductances and long-term synaptic plasticity. Inhibits the synthesis of proteins involved in synaptic plasticity. Binds to the transcription factor cyclic AMP-dependent response element binding (CREB) and dephosphorylates it. May regulate chromatin condensation through regulation of histone H3 phosphorylation. Differentially expressed in gastric cancer. May participate in the neurodegenerative progress in Alzheimer's disease. Down-regulated in lung squamous cell carcinoma. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Nucleolus; Protein phosphatase, Ser/Thr (non-receptor); EC 184.108.40.206
Cellular Component: glycogen granule; cytoplasm; dendritic spine; nucleolus; perikaryon; protein phosphatase type 1 complex; nucleus; cytosol
Molecular Function: ribonucleoprotein binding; protein binding; metal ion binding; phosphoric monoester hydrolase activity; protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity
Biological Process: glycogen metabolic process; regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process; cell cycle; protein amino acid dephosphorylation; regulation of circadian rhythm; entrainment of circadian clock by photoperiod; regulation of glycogen catabolic process; branching morphogenesis of a tube; cell division; transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway; triacylglycerol catabolic process; circadian regulation of gene expression; negative regulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway; lung development
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.