Required for innate immune defense against viruses. Acts downstream of DDX58/RIG-I and IFIH1/MDA5, which detect intracellular dsRNA produced during viral replication, to coordinate pathways leading to the activation of NF-kappa-B, IRF3 and IRF7, and to the subsequent induction of antiviral cytokines such as IFN-beta and RANTES (CCL5). May activate the same pathways following detection of extracellular dsRNA by TLR3. May protect cells from apoptosis. Interacts with DDX58/RIG-I, IFIH1/MDA5, TRAF2 and TRAF6. May interact with IRF3, FADD, RIPK1, CHUK and IKBKB. Does not interact with TBK1. Interacts with and is cleaved by HCV and hepatitis GB virus B NS3/4A proteases. Interacts with and is cleaved by HHAV protein 3ABC. Interacts with NLRX1. Interaction with NLRX1 requires the CARD domain. Interacts with PSMA7. Interacts with TRAFD1. Interacts (via C-terminus) with PCBP2 in a complex containing MAVS/IPS1, PCBP2 and ITCH. Interacts with CYLD. Interacts with SRC. Interacts with DHX58/LGP2 and IKBKE. Present in T-cells, monocytes, epithelial cells and hepatocytes. Ubiquitously expressed, with highest levels in heart, skeletal muscle, liver, placenta and peripheral blood leukocytes. 3 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Adaptor/scaffold; Membrane protein, integral
Cellular Component: peroxisomal membrane; mitochondrial outer membrane; mitochondrion; mitochondrial membrane; integral to membrane
Molecular Function: protein binding; signal transducer activity; CARD domain binding; protein kinase binding
Biological Process: positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade; viral reproduction; positive regulation of protein import into nucleus, translocation; positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production; signal transduction; positive regulation of interleukin-8 production; negative regulation of viral genome replication; defense response to bacterium; positive regulation of transcription factor import into nucleus; positive regulation of interferon-beta production; innate immune response; positive regulation of transcription factor activity; positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; positive regulation of protein amino acid phosphorylation; positive regulation of defense response to virus by host; negative regulation of interferon type I production; defense response to virus; activation of innate immune response; positive regulation of interferon-alpha production
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.