The insulin-like growth factors, isolated from plasma, are structurally and functionally related to insulin but have a much higher growth-promoting activity. May be a physiological regulator of [1-14C]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) transport and glycogen synthesis in osteoblasts. Stimulates glucose transport in rat bone-derived osteoblastic (PyMS) cells and is effective at much lower concentrations than insulin, not only regarding glycogen and DNA synthesis but also with regard to enhancing glucose uptake. Defects in IGF1 are the cause of insulin-like growth factor I deficiency (IGF1 deficiency). IGF1 deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by growth retardation, sensorineural deafness and mental retardation. Belongs to the insulin family. 3 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Secreted; Secreted, signal peptide; Motility/polarity/chemotaxis
Cellular Component: extracellular space; extracellular region
Biological Process: positive regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan biosynthetic process; regulation of protein metabolic process; exocrine pancreas development; water homeostasis; positive regulation of glucose import; positive regulation of fibroblast proliferation; proteoglycan biosynthetic process; inner ear development; positive regulation of DNA binding; muscle hypertrophy; nervous system development; positive regulation of protein import into nucleus, translocation; positive regulation of mitosis; regulation of establishment and/or maintenance of cell polarity; regulation of calcium ion transport; positive regulation of cell growth; positive regulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase cascade; positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation; insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway; branching morphogenesis of a tube; positive regulation of fat cell differentiation; positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; alveolus development; positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation; negative regulation of apoptosis; positive regulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway; myoblast proliferation; positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation; positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process; negative regulation of caspase activity; positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation; positive regulation of smooth muscle cell migration; regulation of translation; negative regulation of cell proliferation; glial cell differentiation; mammary gland development; positive regulation of MAPKKK cascade; positive regulation of cell proliferation; regulation of steroid hormone receptor signaling pathway; positive regulation of granule cell precursor proliferation; regulation of protein amino acid phosphorylation; phosphoinositide-mediated signaling; multicellular organism growth; myotube cell development; satellite cell compartment self-renewal involved in skeletal muscle regeneration; memory; regulation of cell proliferation; myoblast differentiation; positive regulation of osteoblast differentiation; positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling cascade; positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat5 protein; positive regulation of glycolysis; blood vessel remodeling; positive regulation of Ras protein signal transduction; cell development; positive regulation of DNA replication; lung development
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.