Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver. Heterodimer of a B chain and an A chain linked by two disulfide bonds. Belongs to the insulin family. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Hormone; Secreted, signal peptide; Secreted
Molecular Function: insulin-like growth factor receptor binding; identical protein binding; protease binding; hormone activity; protein complex binding; insulin receptor binding
Biological Process: activation of MAPK activity; Wnt receptor signaling pathway through beta-catenin; glucose homeostasis; activation of NF-kappaB transcription factor; positive regulation of glucose import; negative regulation of protein oligomerization; regulation of protein localization; acute-phase response; regulation of transmembrane transporter activity; negative regulation of NAD(P)H oxidase activity; ER overload response; regulation of phosphorylation; positive regulation of mitosis; activation of protein kinase B; negative regulation of acute inflammatory response; myotube differentiation; glucose metabolic process; positive regulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase cascade; positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation; regulation of gene expression; carbohydrate metabolic process; regulation of amino acid metabolic process; negative regulation of protein catabolic process; lipid catabolic process; negative regulation of glycogen catabolic process; wound healing; positive regulation of cellular protein metabolic process; positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process; negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; glucose transport; activation of JNK activity; regulation of protein secretion; positive regulation of MAPKKK cascade; negative regulation of lipid catabolic process; positive regulation of cell proliferation; myoblast fusion; negative regulation of proteolysis; negative regulation of protein secretion; MAPKKK cascade; positive regulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity; negative regulation of fatty acid metabolic process; alpha-beta T cell activation; positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling cascade; G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway; fatty acid homeostasis; regulation of protein binding; positive regulation of glycolysis; insulin receptor signaling pathway; positive regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway; positive regulation of DNA replication; positive regulation of cytokine secretion
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.