Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver. Heterodimer of a B chain and an A chain linked by two disulfide bonds. Belongs to the insulin family. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Secreted; Hormone; Secreted, signal peptide
Molecular Function: insulin-like growth factor receptor binding; identical protein binding; protein binding; protease binding; hormone activity; insulin receptor binding
Biological Process: positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process; positive regulation of vasodilation; glucose homeostasis; activation of NF-kappaB transcription factor; negative regulation of protein oligomerization; positive regulation of glucose import; regulation of protein localization; cell-cell signaling; negative regulation of gluconeogenesis; acute-phase response; regulation of transmembrane transporter activity; negative regulation of NAD(P)H oxidase activity; positive regulation of mitosis; positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity; activation of protein kinase B; negative regulation of acute inflammatory response; glucose metabolic process; positive regulation of lipid biosynthetic process; positive regulation of protein amino acid autophosphorylation; positive regulation of cell growth; positive regulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase cascade; positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation; negative regulation of protein catabolic process; regulation of amino acid metabolic process; positive regulation of cell differentiation; negative regulation of glycogen catabolic process; wound healing; positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process; positive regulation of cellular protein metabolic process; glucose transport; regulation of protein secretion; positive regulation of MAPKKK cascade; regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; negative regulation of vasodilation; negative regulation of lipid catabolic process; positive regulation of cell proliferation; negative regulation of proteolysis; negative regulation of protein secretion; MAPKKK cascade; negative regulation of fatty acid metabolic process; alpha-beta T cell activation; endocrine pancreas development; G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway; positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling cascade; cellular protein metabolic process; fatty acid homeostasis; positive regulation of glycolysis; energy reserve metabolic process; insulin receptor signaling pathway; positive regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway; regulation of insulin secretion; positive regulation of DNA replication; positive regulation of cell migration; positive regulation of cytokine secretion
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.