Probably involved in the repair of mismatches in DNA. Defects in PMS1 are the cause of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer type 3 (HNPCC3). Mutations in more than one gene locus can be involved alone or in combination in the production of the HNPCC phenotype (also called Lynch syndrome). Most families with clinically recognized HNPCC have mutations in either MLH1 or MSH2 genes. HNPCC is an autosomal, dominantly inherited disease associated with marked increase in cancer susceptibility. It is characterized by a familial predisposition to early onset colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and extra-colonic cancers of the gastrointestinal, urological and female reproductive tracts. HNPCC is reported to be the most common form of inherited colorectal cancer in the Western world, and accounts for 15% of all colon cancers. Cancers in HNPCC originate within benign neoplastic polyps termed adenomas. Clinically, HNPCC is often divided into two subgroups. Type I: hereditary predisposition to colorectal cancer, a young age of onset, and carcinoma observed in the proximal colon. Type II: patients have an increased risk for cancers in certain tissues such as the uterus, ovary, breast, stomach, small intestine, skin, and larynx in addition to the colon. Diagnosis of classical HNPCC is based on the Amsterdam criteria: 3 or more relatives affected by colorectal cancer, one a first degree relative of the other two; 2 or more generation affected; 1 or more colorectal cancers presenting before 50 years of age; exclusion of hereditary polyposis syndromes. The term 'suspected HNPCC' or 'incomplete HNPCC' can be used to describe families who do not or only partially fulfill the Amsterdam criteria, but in whom a genetic basis for colon cancer is strongly suspected. Belongs to the DNA mismatch repair MutL/HexB family. 3 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: DNA repair, damage
Cellular Component: MutLalpha complex; nucleus
Molecular Function: DNA binding; ATPase activity; single-stranded DNA binding; ATP binding; mismatched DNA binding
Biological Process: response to drug; ATP catabolic process; mismatch repair
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.