a receptor tyrosine kinase. Receptor for members of the ephrin-A family. Binds to ephrin-A1, -A3, -A4 AND -A5. The Eph receptor tyrosine kinase family, the largest in the tyrosine kinase group, has fourteen members. They bind membrane-anchored ligands, ephrins, at sites of cell-cell contact, regulating the repulsion and adhesion of cells that underlie the establishment, maintenance, and remodeling of patterns of cellular organization. Eph signals are particularly important in regulating cell adhesion and cell migration during development, axon guidance, homeostasis and disease. EphA receptors bind to GPI-anchored ephrin-A ligands, while EphB receptors bind to ephrin-B proteins that have a transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain. Interactions between EphB receptor kinases and ephrin-B proteins transduce signals bidirectionally, signaling to both interacting cell types. Eph receptors and ephrins also regulate the adhesion of endothelial cells and are required for the remodeling of blood vessels. Overexpressed in many cancers including aggressive ovarian, cervical and breast carcinomas, and lung cancer. Expression correlates with degree of angiogenesis, metastasis and xenograft tumor growth. Soluble receptor inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis in mice. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Membrane protein, integral; EC 126.96.36.199; Protein kinase, tyrosine (receptor); Kinase, protein; Protein kinase, TK; TK group; Eph family
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 1p36
Cellular Component: focal adhesion; integral to plasma membrane; plasma membrane
Molecular Function: protein binding; ephrin receptor activity; transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity; ATP binding
Biological Process: neural tube development; axial mesoderm formation; cell migration; negative regulation of protein kinase B signaling cascade; peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation; viral reproduction; activation of Rac GTPase; multicellular organismal development; notochord formation; mammary gland epithelial cell proliferation; osteoclast differentiation; bone remodeling; regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration; regulation of angiogenesis; neuron differentiation; keratinocyte differentiation; osteoblast differentiation; regulation of cell adhesion mediated by integrin; DNA damage response, signal transduction resulting in induction of apoptosis; notochord cell development; ephrin receptor signaling pathway; protein kinase B signaling cascade; angiogenesis; cell adhesion; vasculogenesis; skeletal development
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.