Apoptotic regulator capable of exerting proapoptotic and anti-apoptotic activities and plays crucial roles in apoptosis, cell proliferation, and cell cycle control. Its anti-apoptotic activity is mediated through the inhibition of CASP3, CASP7 and CASP9, as well as by its E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity. As it is a weak caspase inhibitor, its anti-apoptotic activity is thought to be due to its ability to ubiquitinate DIABLO/SMAC targeting it for degradation thereby promoting cell survival. May contribute to caspase inhibition, by blocking the ability of DIABLO/SMAC to disrupt XIAP/BIRC4-caspase interactions. Protects against apoptosis induced by TNF or by chemical agents such as adriamycin, etoposide or staurosporine. Suppression of apoptosis is mediated by activation of MAPK8/JNK1, and possibly also of MAPK9/JNK2. This activation depends on TAB1 and NR2C2/TAK1. In vitro, inhibits CASP3 and proteolytic activation of pro-CASP9. Isoform 1 blocks staurosporine-induced apoptosis. Isoform 2 blocks etoposide-induced apoptosis. Isoform 2 protects against natural killer (NK) cell killing whereas isoform 1 augments killing. Binds to CASP9. Interaction with DIABLO/SMAC via the BIR domain disrupts binding to CASP9 and apoptotic suppressor activity. Interacts with TAB1. In vitro, interacts with CASP3 and CASP7 via its BIR domain. Isoform 1 and isoform 2 are expressed at very low levels or not detectable in most adult tissues. Detected in adult heart, placenta, lung, lymph node, spleen and ovary, and in several carcinoma cell lines. Isoform 2 is detected in fetal kidney, heart and spleen, and at lower levels in adult brain, skeletal muscle and peripheral blood leukocytes. Belongs to the IAP family. 2 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Ligase; Apoptosis; Ubiquitin ligase; EC 6.3.2.-; Ubiquitin conjugating system
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.