IFN-induced antiviral host restriction factor which efficiently blocks the release of diverse mammalian enveloped viruses by directly tethering nascent virions to the membranes of infected cells. Acts as a direct physical tether, holding virions to the cell membrane and linking virions to each other. The tethered virions can be internalized by endocytosis and subsequently degraded or they can remain on the cell surface. In either case, their spread as cell-free virions is restricted. Its target viruses belong to diverse families, including retroviridae: human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2), simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), prototype foamy virus (PFV), Mason- Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV), human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) and murine leukemia virus (MLV), flavivirideae: hepatitis C virus (HCV), filoviridae: ebola virus (EBOV) and marburg virus (MARV), arenaviridae: lassa virus (LASV) and machupo virus (MACV), herpesviridae: kaposis sarcoma- associated herpesvirus (KSHV), rhabdoviridae: vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), orthomyxoviridae: influenza A virus, and paramyxoviridae: nipah virus. Can inhibit cell surface proteolytic activity of MMP14 causing decreased activation of MMP15 which results in inhibition of cell growth and migration. Can stimulate signaling by LILRA4/ILT7 and consequently provide negative feedback to the production of IFN by plasmacytoid dendritic cells in response to viral infection. Plays a role in the organization of the subapical actin cytoskeleton in polarized epithelial cells. Belongs to the tetherin family. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Membrane protein, GPI anchor; Cell development/differentiation; Membrane protein, integral
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 19p13.1
Cellular Component: Golgi apparatus; cell surface; membrane; integral to plasma membrane; late endosome; apical plasma membrane; cytoplasm; plasma membrane; lipid raft
Molecular Function: metalloendopeptidase inhibitor activity; signal transducer activity; protein binding; protein homodimerization activity
Biological Process: cell proliferation; positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade; negative regulation of plasmacytoid dendritic cell cytokine production; negative regulation of viral genome replication; B cell activation; cell-cell signaling; response to virus; regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization and biogenesis; multicellular organismal development; cytokine and chemokine mediated signaling pathway; innate immune response; negative regulation of cell growth; defense response to virus; negative regulation of cell migration; humoral immune response
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.