Probable oxidoreductase that has a dual role in controlling cellular life and death; during apoptosis, it is translocated from the mitochondria to the nucleus to function as a proapoptotic factor in a caspase-independent pathway, while in normal mitochondria, it functions as an antiapoptotic factor via its oxidoreductase activity. The soluble form (AIFsol) found in the nucleus induces 'parthanatos' i.e., caspase-independent fragmentation of chromosomal DNA. Interacts with EIF3G,and thereby inhibits the EIF3 machinery and protein synthesis, and activates casapse-7 to amplify apoptosis. Plays a critical role in caspase- independent, pyknotic cell death in hydrogen peroxide-exposed cells. Binds to DNA in a sequence-independent manner. Interacts with XIAP/BIRC4. Interacts (via N-terminus) with EIF3G (via C-terminus). Belongs to the FAD-dependent oxidoreductase family. 4 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Apoptosis; Mitochondrial; EC 1.-.-.-; Oxidoreductase
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: Xq26.1
Cellular Component: mitochondrion; perinuclear region of cytoplasm; mitochondrial inner membrane; mitochondrial intermembrane space; cytosol; nucleus
Molecular Function: protein dimerization activity; oxidoreductase activity, acting on NADH or NADPH; protein binding; electron carrier activity; FAD binding; DNA binding; NAD(P)H oxidase activity
Biological Process: chromosome condensation; neuron differentiation; caspase activation; mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I assembly; neuron apoptosis; apoptosis; positive regulation of apoptosis; cell redox homeostasis; DNA fragmentation during apoptosis; DNA catabolic process
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.