Chemoattractant for blood monocytes, memory T-helper cells and eosinophils. Causes the release of histamine from basophils and activates eosinophils. Binds to CCR1, CCR3, CCR4 and CCR5. One of the major HIV-suppressive factors produced by CD8+ T- cells. Recombinant RANTES protein induces a dose-dependent inhibition of different strains of HIV-1, HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). The processed form RANTES(3-68) acts as a natural chemotaxis inhibitor and is a more potent inhibitor of HIV-1-infection. The second processed form RANTES(4-68) exhibits reduced chemotactic and HIV-suppressive activity compared with RANTES(1-68) and RANTES(3-68) and is generated by an unidentified enzyme associated with monocytes and neutrophils. By mitogens. T-cell and macrophage specific. Belongs to the intercrine beta (chemokine CC) family. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Secreted; Chemokine; Motility/polarity/chemotaxis; Cell adhesion; Secreted, signal peptide
Cellular Component: extracellular space; cytoplasm; extracellular region
Molecular Function: protein homodimerization activity; protein self-association; receptor signaling protein tyrosine kinase activator activity; phosphoinositide phospholipase C activity; protein kinase activity; CCR1 chemokine receptor binding; CCR4 chemokine receptor binding; protein binding; chemokine receptor binding; chemokine activity; chemokine receptor antagonist activity; CCR5 chemokine receptor binding; chemoattractant activity; phospholipase activator activity
Biological Process: regulation of chronic inflammatory response; positive regulation of cell adhesion; exocytosis; positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation; response to toxin; positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade; chemotaxis; positive regulation of smooth muscle cell migration; positive regulation of cell-cell adhesion mediated by integrin; protein amino acid phosphorylation; positive regulation of homotypic cell-cell adhesion; positive regulation of translational initiation; monocyte chemotaxis; leukocyte adhesion; positive chemotaxis; cell-cell signaling; calcium ion transport; positive regulation of innate immune response; protein kinase B signaling cascade; lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway; dendritic cell chemotaxis; positive regulation of T cell proliferation; inflammatory response; protein tetramerization; phospholipase D activation; positive regulation of viral genome replication; neutrophil activation; negative regulation of G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway; response to virus; MAPKKK cascade; positive regulation of cellular biosynthetic process; macrophage chemotaxis; positive regulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase cascade; cellular calcium ion homeostasis; cellular protein complex assembly; negative regulation of viral genome replication; positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein; eosinophil chemotaxis; positive regulation of calcium ion transport; positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation; positive regulation of phosphorylation; regulation of T cell activation; positive regulation of cell migration
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.