Destroys superoxide anion radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems. Genetic variation in SOD2 is associated with susceptibility to microvascular complications of diabetes type 6 (MVCD6). These are pathological conditions that develop in numerous tissues and organs as a consequence of diabetes mellitus. They include diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy leading to end-stage renal disease, and diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic retinopathy remains the major cause of new- onset blindness among diabetic adults. It is characterized by vascular permeability and increased tissue ischemia and angiogenesis. Belongs to the iron/manganese superoxide dismutase family. 2 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Mitochondrial; Oxidoreductase; EC 220.127.116.11
Molecular Function: identical protein binding; DNA binding; manganese ion binding; superoxide dismutase activity; oxygen binding
Biological Process: oxygen homeostasis; positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process; removal of superoxide radicals; heart development; locomotory behavior; response to lipopolysaccharide; response to L-ascorbic acid; post-embryonic development; protein homotetramerization; negative regulation of cell proliferation; response to selenium ion; glutathione metabolic process; acetylcholine vasodilation involved in regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure; regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential; regulation of catalytic activity; regulation of blood pressure; response to gamma radiation; hemopoiesis; response to axon injury; negative regulation of neuron apoptosis; response to electrical stimulus; response to drug; erythrophore differentiation; response to superoxide; release of cytochrome c from mitochondria; superoxide metabolic process; liver development; negative regulation of fat cell differentiation; regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; response to manganese ion; iron ion homeostasis; response to silicon dioxide; response to hyperoxia; response to cadmium ion; response to hydrogen peroxide; negative regulation of fibroblast proliferation; age-dependent response to reactive oxygen species; detection of oxygen; response to zinc ion; response to hypoxia; neuron development; response to activity; superoxide release; hydrogen peroxide biosynthetic process
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.