a plasma membrane-associated member of the Rho-GTPase family. Plays a key role in cytoskeletal reorganization, membrane trafficking, transcriptional regulation and cell growth and development. GTP binding stimulates its activity. Phosphorylation by Akt may inhibit GTP binding of Rac1, therefore attenuating the downstream signal transduction pathway. Found in a trimeric complex composed of DOCK1 and ELMO1, which plays a central role in phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Two alternatively spliced isoforms have been described. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: G protein; Motility/polarity/chemotaxis; G protein, monomeric, Rho; G protein, monomeric
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 7p22
Cellular Component: Golgi membrane; extrinsic to plasma membrane; membrane; lamellipodium; plasma membrane; melanosome; trans-Golgi network; cytosol; phagocytic cup
Molecular Function: GTPase activity; protein binding; enzyme binding; GTP binding; GTP-dependent protein binding; thioesterase binding; Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor binding; protein kinase binding; Rab GTPase binding
Biological Process: axon guidance; viral reproduction; nerve growth factor receptor signaling pathway; positive regulation of apoptosis; cell-matrix adhesion; cell motility involved in cell locomotion; regulation of cell migration; localization within membrane; actin filament polymerization; GTP catabolic process; small GTPase mediated signal transduction; response to wounding; cell adhesion; inflammatory response; regulation of hydrogen peroxide metabolic process; bone resorption; lamellipodium biogenesis; platelet activation; intercellular junction assembly and maintenance; embryonic olfactory bulb interneuron precursor migration; anatomical structure morphogenesis; Wnt receptor signaling pathway, planar cell polarity pathway; mast cell chemotaxis; dendrite morphogenesis; positive regulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity; positive regulation of Rho protein signal transduction; engulfment of apoptotic cell; regulation of defense response to virus by virus; cell proliferation; hyperosmotic response; negative regulation of interleukin-23 production; positive regulation of actin filament polymerization; organization of an anatomical structure; T cell costimulation; auditory receptor cell morphogenesis; ruffle organization and biogenesis; innate immune response; negative regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis; cerebral cortex radially oriented cell migration; positive regulation of protein amino acid phosphorylation; actin cytoskeleton organization and biogenesis; blood coagulation; cell motility; positive regulation of DNA replication
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.