a transcription factor of the nuclear factor-kappaB ( NFkB) group. Undergoes cotranslational processing by the 26S proteasome to produce a 50 kD protein. The 105 kD protein is a Rel protein-specific transcription inhibitor and the 50 kD protein is a DNA binding subunit of NFkB. NFkB is a transcription regulator that is activated by various intra- and extra-cellular stimuli such as cytokines, oxidant-free radicals, ultraviolet irradiation, and bacterial or viral products. Activated NFkB translocates into the nucleus and stimulates the expression of genes involved in a wide variety of biological functions. Inappropriate activation of NFkB has been associated with a number of inflammatory diseases while persistent inhibition of NFkB leads to inappropriate immune cell development or delayed cell growth. There are five NFkB proteins in mammals (RelA/NFkB-p65, RelB, c-Rel, NF-_B1/NFkB-p105, and NF-_B2/NFkB-p100). They form a variety of homodimers and heterodimers, each of which activates its own characteristic set of genes. Two alternatively spliced isoforms have been described. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Transcription factor; DNA binding protein
Molecular Function: protein binding; protein homodimerization activity; protein heterodimerization activity; heat shock protein binding; double-stranded DNA binding; chromatin binding; transcription factor binding; transcription factor activity
Biological Process: transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade; nerve growth factor receptor signaling pathway; apoptosis; negative regulation of cholesterol transport; positive regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; negative regulation of cellular protein metabolic process; negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; toll-like receptor 3 signaling pathway; T cell receptor signaling pathway; activation of NF-kappaB transcription factor; toll-like receptor 10 signaling pathway; toll-like receptor 5 signaling pathway; positive regulation of interferon type I production; inflammatory response; toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway; membrane protein intracellular domain proteolysis; MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway; negative regulation of interleukin-12 biosynthetic process; toll-like receptor 2 signaling pathway; MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway; response to copper ion; negative regulation of inflammatory response; toll-like receptor signaling pathway; innate immune response; positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; toll-like receptor 9 signaling pathway; response to oxidative stress; negative regulation of apoptosis
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.