Participates in various redox reactions through the reversible oxidation of its active center dithiol to a disulfide and catalyzes dithiol-disulfide exchange reactions. Plays a role in the reversible S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues in target proteins, and thereby contributes to the response to intracellular nitric oxide. Nitrosylates the active site Cys of CASP3 in response to nitric oxide (NO), and thereby inhibits caspase-3 activity. Induces the FOS/JUN AP-1 DNA-binding activity in ionizing radiation (IR) cells through its oxidation/reduction status and stimulates AP-1 transcriptional activity. Homodimer; disulfide-linked. Interacts with TXNIP through the redox-active site. Interacts with MAP3K5 and CASP3. In case of infection, interacts with S.typhimurium protein slrP. Interacts with APEX1; the interaction stimulates the FOS/JUN AP-1 DNA- binding activity in a redox-dependent manner. Up-regulated by ionizing radiation. Belongs to the thioredoxin family. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Molecular Function: oxidoreductase activity, acting on sulfur group of donors, disulfide as acceptor; protein binding; protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity; protein-disulfide reductase activity; thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity
Biological Process: activation of protein kinase B; cell motility; cell proliferation; cell redox homeostasis; cell-cell signaling; nucleobase, nucleoside and nucleotide interconversion; positive regulation of DNA binding; positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling cascade; protein repair; regulation of protein import into nucleus, translocation; response to radiation; response to reactive oxygen species; signal transduction