is a negative regulator of the Wnt pathway, which is critical in stem cell signaling, morphogenesis, the mesenchymal-epithelial transition, and many cancers. Axin-1 functions as a tumor suppressor. Probably facilitates the phosphorylation of beta-catenin and APC by GSK3B, leading to their ubiquitination and subsequent proteolysis. Wild-type axin 1 can induce apoptosis in hepatocellular and colorectal cancer cells. Is downregulated during progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Mutation of the axin-1 gene is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma, anaplastic thyroid cancer, medulloblastoma and colorectal cancer. May have a role in oncogenesis in Hodgkin lymphoma. Axin1/2 mediate cross-talk between TGF-beta and Wnt signaling pathways. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Cellular Component: beta-catenin destruction complex; cell cortex; cytoplasm; cytoplasmic membrane-bound vesicle; cytoplasmic microtubule; cytoplasmic vesicle; cytosol; lateral plasma membrane; nucleus; perinuclear region of cytoplasm; postsynaptic density
Molecular Function: beta-catenin binding; enzyme binding; GTPase activator activity; identical protein binding; p53 binding; protein binding; protein C-terminus binding; protein complex scaffold; protein homodimerization activity; protein kinase binding; protein self-association; receptor signaling complex scaffold activity; signal transducer activity; SMAD binding; ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Biological Process: activation of JNK activity; activation of protein kinase activity; apoptosis; axial mesoderm formation; cell death; cellular protein complex assembly; cytoplasmic microtubule organization and biogenesis; determination of left/right symmetry; dorsal/ventral axis specification; embryonic eye morphogenesis; forebrain anterior/posterior pattern formation; in utero embryonic development; muscle cell development; negative regulation of fat cell differentiation; negative regulation of protein metabolic process; negative regulation of Wnt receptor signaling pathway; nucleocytoplasmic transport; olfactory placode formation; optic placode formation; positive regulation of GTPase activity; positive regulation of JNK cascade; positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; positive regulation of proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process; positive regulation of protein amino acid phosphorylation; positive regulation of protein catabolic process; positive regulation of protein ubiquitination; positive regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; positive regulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway; positive regulation of ubiquitin-protein ligase activity; protein catabolic process; protein homooligomerization; protein polyubiquitination; sensory perception of sound; Wnt receptor signaling pathway involved in forebrain neuron fate commitment; Wnt receptor signaling pathway through beta-catenin
LTP: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.