a microtubule-associated protein that regulates microtubule assembly and stability. Apparently involved in the establishment and maintenance of neuronal polarity. Mutations can result in several neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Pick's disease, frontotemporal dementia, cortico-basal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy. The C-terminus binds axonal microtubules while the N-terminus binds neural plasma membrane components, suggesting that tau functions as a linker. Axonal polarity is predetermined by tau localization (in the neuronal cell) in the domain of the cell body defined by the centrosome. Nine differentially spliced isoforms have been described. The short isoforms allow plasticity of the cytoskeleton, whereas the longer isoforms may preferentially play a role in its stabilization. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Molecular Function: actin binding; apolipoprotein binding; DNA binding; enzyme binding; Hsp90 protein binding; identical protein binding; microtubule binding; protein binding; protein homodimerization activity; protein phosphatase 2A binding; receptor agonist activity; SH3 domain binding
Biological Process: astrocyte activation; axon transport of mitochondrion; caspase activation; cytoplasmic microtubule organization and biogenesis; intracellular distribution of mitochondria; memory; microglial cell activation; microtubule cytoskeleton organization and biogenesis; negative regulation of kinase activity; neurite development; positive regulation of axon extension; positive regulation of microtubule polymerization; positive regulation of superoxide release; protein oligomerization; regulation of autophagy; regulation of calcium-mediated signaling; regulation of microtubule polymerization or depolymerization; synapse organization and biogenesis