Javascript is not enabled on this browser. This site will not work properly without Javascript.
PhosphoSitePlus Homepage Cell Signaling Technology
PhosphoSitePlus
HomeAbout PhosphoSiteUsing PhosphoSiteCuration ProcessContact
logos LINCs Logo Mt Sinai Logo NIH Logo NCI Logo
Protein Page:
H2AX (human)
p Phosphorylation
ac Acetylation
me Methylation
m1 Mono-methylation
m2 Di-methylation
m3 Tri-methylation
ub Ubiquitylation
sm Sumoylation
ne Neddylation
gl O-GlcNAc
ga O-GalNAc
pa Palmitoylation
ad Adenylation
sn S-Nitrosylation
ca Caspase cleavage
sc Succinylation

Overview
H2AX a histone that replaces conventional H2A in a subset of nucleosomes. Required for checkpoint-mediated arrest of cell cycle progression in response to low doses of ionizing radiation and for efficient repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) specifically when modified by C-terminal phosphorylation. Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) form an octamer, around which approximately 146 bp of DNA is wrapped in repeating units, called nucleosomes. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling. Phosphorylated on S139 by ATM and DNA-PK in response to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) generated by exogenous genotoxic agents and by stalled replication forks, and may also occur during meiotic recombination events and immunoglobulin class switching in lymphocytes. Phosphorylation can extend up to several thousand nucleosomes from the actual site of the DSB and may mark the surrounding chromatin for recruitment of proteins required for DNA damage signaling and repair. Widespread phosphorylation may also serve to amplify the damage signal or aid repair of persistent lesions. Dephosphorylation of S139 by PP2A is required for DNA DSB repair. Apparently phosphorylated on Y143 by WSTF, determining the relative recruitment of either DNA repair or pro-apoptotic factors. H2AXpY142 favors the recruitment of pro-apoptotic factors APBB1 and JNK1. In contrast, dephosphorylation of pY143 by EYA phosphatases favors the recruitment of MDC1-containing DNA repair complexes to the tail of phosphorylated pS139. Monoubiquitination of K119 by RING1 and RNF2/RING2 complex gives a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional repression. Following DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), it is ubiquitinated through 'K63' linkages by the E2 ligase UBE2N and the E3 ligases RNF8 and RNF168, leading to the recruitment of repair proteins to sites of DNA damage. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: DNA repair, damage; Helicase; DNA-binding
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 11q23.3
Cellular Component: chromosome, telomeric region; condensed nuclear chromosome; male germ cell nucleus; nuclear chromatin; nucleoplasm; nucleosome; nucleus; replication fork; XY body
Molecular Function: damaged DNA binding; DNA binding; enzyme binding; histone binding; protein binding; protein heterodimerization activity
Biological Process: cerebral cortex development; chromatin silencing; DNA damage checkpoint; double-strand break repair; double-strand break repair via homologous recombination; double-strand break repair via nonhomologous end joining; meiotic cell cycle; nucleosome assembly; positive regulation of DNA repair; response to DNA damage stimulus; response to ionizing radiation; spermatogenesis; viral reproduction
Reference #:  P16104 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: H2A histone family, member X; H2A.X; H2a/x; H2AFX; H2AX; H2AX histone; Histone H2A.x
Gene Symbols: H2AFX
Molecular weight: 15,013 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 10.74  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
Protein-Specific Antibodies or siRNAs from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
Select Structure to View Below

H2AX

Protein Structure Not Found.
Download PyMol Script
Download ChimeraX Script


STRING  |  cBioPortal  |  Wikipedia  |  Reactome  |  neXtProt  |  Protein Atlas  |  BioGPS  |  Scansite  |  Pfam  |  RCSB PDB  |  Phospho3D  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  GeneCards  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  GenPept  |  Ensembl Gene


Sites Implicated In
apoptosis, altered: S139‑p
apoptosis, induced: Y142‑p
cell cycle regulation: S139‑p
cytoskeletal reorganization: S139‑p
DNA repair, altered: S139‑p, Y142‑p
DNA repair, induced: K118‑ub, K119‑ub, S139‑p
intracellular localization: T136‑p, S139‑p
molecular association, regulation: T136‑p, S139‑p, Y142‑p
phosphorylation: K118‑ub, K119‑ub

Modification Sites and Domains Show Modification Legend
Click here to view phosphorylation modifications only

Modification Sites in Parent Protein, Orthologs, and Isoforms Show Modification Legend
 

Show Multiple Sequence Alignment


 LTP 

LTP: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.


 HTP 

HTP: The number of records in which this modification site was assigned using ONLY proteomic discovery-mode mass spectrometry.


       human

 
4 53 K5‑ac ___SGRGkTGGkARA
1 53 K9‑ac GRGkTGGkARAKAKs
1 0 S16‑p kARAKAKsRSSRAGL
2 1 K36‑ac RVHRLLRkGHyAERV
0 2 Y39‑p RLLRkGHyAERVGAG
1 0 Y57‑p YLAAVLEyLTAEILE
0 19 K95‑ub RNDEELNkLLGGVtI
1 6 T101‑p NkLLGGVtIAQGGVL
0 41 K118‑ac IQAVLLPkktsAtVG
3 176 K118‑ub IQAVLLPkktsAtVG
0 19 K119‑ac QAVLLPkktsAtVGP
3 162 K119‑ub QAVLLPkktsAtVGP
0 5 T120‑p AVLLPkktsAtVGPk
0 7 S121‑p VLLPkktsAtVGPkA
0 2 T123‑p LPkktsAtVGPkAPs
0 1 K127 tsAtVGPKAPsGGkk
0 112 K127‑ub tsAtVGPkAPsGGkk
0 2 S130‑p tVGPkAPsGGkkAtQ
0 4 K133‑ac PkAPsGGkkAtQAsQ
0 5 K133‑ub PkAPsGGkkAtQAsQ
0 1 K134 kAPsGGkKAtQAsQE
1 0 K134‑m2 kAPsGGkkAtQAsQE
0 11 K134‑ub kAPsGGkkAtQAsQE
5 20 T136‑p PsGGkkAtQAsQEy_
182 40 S139‑p GkkAtQAsQEy____
5 2 Y142‑p AtQAsQEy_______
5438 : Phospho-Histone H2A.X (Ser139/Tyr142) Antibody
  mouse

 
K5‑ac ___SGRGkTGGkARA
K9‑ac GRGkTGGkARAKAKS
S16 kARAKAKSRSSRAGL
K36 RVHRLLRKGHYAERV
Y39 RLLRKGHYAERVGAG
Y57 YLAAVLEYLTAEILE
K95‑ub RNDEELNkLLGGVtI
T101‑p NkLLGGVtIAQGGVL
K118‑ac IQAVLLPkkssATVG
K118‑ub IQAVLLPkkssATVG
K119‑ac QAVLLPkkssATVGP
K119‑ub QAVLLPkkssATVGP
S120‑p AVLLPkkssATVGPk
S121‑p VLLPkkssATVGPkA
T123 LPkkssATVGPkAPA
K127‑ac ssATVGPkAPAVGkK
K127‑ub ssATVGPkAPAVGkK
A130 TVGPkAPAVGkKAsQ
K133‑ac PkAPAVGkKAsQAsQ
K133 PkAPAVGKKAsQAsQ
K134 kAPAVGkKAsQAsQE
K134 kAPAVGkKAsQAsQE
K134 kAPAVGkKAsQAsQE
S136‑p PAVGkKAsQAsQEy_
S139‑p GkKAsQAsQEy____
Y142‑p AsQAsQEy_______
2577 : Phospho-Histone H2A.X (Ser139) Antibody
4309 : Phospho-Histone H2A.X (Ser139) (20E3) Rabbit mAb (Biotinylated)
5438 : Phospho-Histone H2A.X (Ser139/Tyr142) Antibody
5763 : Phospho-Histone H2A.X (Ser139) (20E3) Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate)
8228 : Phospho-Histone H2A.X (Ser139) (20E3) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor(R) 555 Conjugate)
9718 : Phospho-Histone H2A.X (Ser139) (20E3) Rabbit mAb
9719 : Phospho-Histone H2A.X (Ser139) (20E3) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor(R) 488 Conjugate)
9720 : Phospho-Histone H2A.X (Ser139) (20E3) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor(R) 647 Conjugate)
5438 : Phospho-Histone H2A.X (Ser139/Tyr142) Antibody
  rat

 
K5‑ac ___SGRGkTGGkARA
K9‑ac GRGkTGGkARAKAKS
S16 kARAKAKSRSSRAGL
K36 RVHRLLRKGHYAERV
Y39 RLLRKGHYAERVGAG
Y57 YLAAVLEYLTAEILE
K95 RNDEELNKLLGGVtI
T101‑p NKLLGGVtIAQGGVL
K118‑ac IQAVLLPkkTsATVG
K118‑ub IQAVLLPkkTsATVG
K119‑ac QAVLLPkkTsATVGP
K119‑ub QAVLLPkkTsATVGP
T120 AVLLPkkTsATVGPk
S121‑p VLLPkkTsATVGPkA
T123 LPkkTsATVGPkAPA
K127 TsATVGPKAPAGGkk
K127‑ub TsATVGPkAPAGGkk
A130 TVGPkAPAGGkkAsQ
K133‑ac PkAPAGGkkAsQAsQ
K133 PkAPAGGKkAsQAsQ
K134‑ac kAPAGGkkAsQAsQE
K134 kAPAGGkKAsQAsQE
K134 kAPAGGkKAsQAsQE
S136‑p PAGGkkAsQAsQEY_
S139‑p GkkAsQAsQEY____
Y142 AsQAsQEY_______
2577 : Phospho-Histone H2A.X (Ser139) Antibody
4309 : Phospho-Histone H2A.X (Ser139) (20E3) Rabbit mAb (Biotinylated)
5438 : Phospho-Histone H2A.X (Ser139/Tyr142) Antibody
5763 : Phospho-Histone H2A.X (Ser139) (20E3) Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate)
8228 : Phospho-Histone H2A.X (Ser139) (20E3) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor(R) 555 Conjugate)
9718 : Phospho-Histone H2A.X (Ser139) (20E3) Rabbit mAb
9719 : Phospho-Histone H2A.X (Ser139) (20E3) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor(R) 488 Conjugate)
9720 : Phospho-Histone H2A.X (Ser139) (20E3) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor(R) 647 Conjugate)
5438 : Phospho-Histone H2A.X (Ser139/Tyr142) Antibody
Home  |  Curator Login With enhanced literature mining using Linguamatics I2E I2E Logo Produced by 3rd Millennium  |  Design by Digizyme
©2003-2013 Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.