Erythropoietin is the principal hormone involved in the regulation of erythrocyte differentiation and the maintenance of a physiological level of circulating erythrocyte mass. Genetic variation in EPO is associated with susceptbility to microvascular complications of diabetes type 2 (MVCD2). These are pathological conditions that develop in numerous tissues and organs as a consequence of diabetes mellitus. They include diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy leading to end-stage renal disease, and diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic retinopathy remains the major cause of new-onset blindness among diabetic adults. It is characterized by vascular permeability and increased tissue ischemia and angiogenesis. Belongs to the EPO/TPO family. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Secreted; Secreted, signal peptide
Cellular Component: cell surface; extracellular space
Molecular Function: erythropoietin receptor binding; protein kinase activator activity
Biological Process: angiogenesis; apoptosis; cardiac muscle morphogensis; embryo implantation; erythrocyte differentiation; heart morphogenesis; hemoglobin biosynthetic process; negative regulation of apoptosis; negative regulation of myeloid cell apoptosis; negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation; positive regulation of cell proliferation; positive regulation of DNA replication; positive regulation of neuron differentiation; positive regulation of protein kinase activity; positive regulation of Ras protein signal transduction; positive regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat5 protein; regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; response to hypoxia; ventricular cardiac muscle morphogenesis