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Protein Page:
GREM1 (human)
p Phosphorylation
ac Acetylation
me Methylation
m1 Mono-methylation
m2 Di-methylation
m3 Tri-methylation
ub Ubiquitylation
sm Sumoylation
ne Neddylation
gl O-GlcNAc
ga O-GalNAc
pa Palmitoylation
ad Adenylation
sn S-Nitrosylation
ca Caspase cleavage
sc Succinylation

Overview
GREM1 Cytokine that may play an important role during carcinogenesis and metanephric kidney organogenesis, as a BMP antagonist required for early limb outgrowth and patterning in maintaining the FGF4-SHH feedback loop. Down-regulates the BMP4 signaling in a dose-dependent manner. Acts as inhibitor of monocyte chemotaxis. Interacts with SLIT1 and SLIT2 in a glycosylation- dependent manner. By high glucose through TGFB1-mediated pathways in mesangial cell. Down-regulated in tumor cell lines. Highly expressed in small intestine, fetal brain and colon. Weakly expressed in brain, ovary, prostate, pancreas and skeletal muscle. In brain found in the region localized around the internal capsule in the large subcortical nuclei, including caudate, putamen, substantia nigra, thalamus and subthalamus. Predominantly expressed in normal cells including neurons, astrocytes and fibroblasts. Belongs to the DAN family. 2 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Secreted; Secreted, signal peptide
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 15q13.3
Cellular Component: cell surface; extracellular space
Molecular Function: cytokine activity; morphogen activity; protein binding; receptor agonist activity; transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activator activity; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 binding
Biological Process: activation of NF-kappaB transcription factor; apoptosis; cell migration during sprouting angiogenesis; cell morphogenesis; cell-cell signaling; collagen fibril organization; determination of dorsal identity; embryonic limb morphogenesis; limb development; negative regulation of apoptosis; negative regulation of BMP signaling pathway; negative regulation of bone mineralization; negative regulation of bone remodeling; negative regulation of cell growth; negative regulation of chondrocyte differentiation; negative regulation of osteoblast proliferation; negative regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; positive regulation of angiogenesis; positive regulation of cell proliferation; positive regulation of NF-kappaB import into nucleus; positive regulation of receptor internalization; positive regulation of telomerase activity; positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; proximal/distal pattern formation; regulation of focal adhesion formation; regulation of stress-activated MAPK cascade; signal transduction; transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activation (dimerization); ureteric bud branching
Reference #:  O60565 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: Cell proliferation-inducing gene 2 protein; CKTSF1B1; Cysteine knot superfamily 1, BMP antagonist 1; DAN domain family member 2; DAND2; Down-regulated in Mos-transformed cells protein; DRM; GREM1; GREMLIN; gremlin 1, cysteine knot superfamily, homolog (Xenopus laevis); gremlin 1-like protein; Gremlin-1; IHG-2; Increased in high glucose protein 2; increased in high glucose-2; MGC126660; PIG2; proliferation-inducing gene 2
Gene Symbols: GREM1
Molecular weight: 20,697 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 9.53  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
Protein-Specific Antibodies or siRNAs from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
Select Structure to View Below

GREM1

Protein Structure Not Found.


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Modification Sites and Domains Show Modification Legend
Click here to view phosphorylation modifications only

Modification Sites in Parent Protein, Orthologs, and Isoforms Show Modification Legend
 

Show Multiple Sequence Alignment


 LTP 

LTP: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.


 HTP 

HTP: The number of records in which this modification site was assigned using ONLY proteomic discovery-mode mass spectrometry.


       human

 
0 1 T66 GRGQGRGTAMPGEEV
0 1 S76‑p PGEEVLEssQEALHV
0 4 S77‑p GEEVLEssQEALHVT
0 1 T84 sQEALHVTERkYLKR
0 1 K87‑ub ALHVTERkYLKRDWC
0 1 T165 CPELQPPTKKKRVTR
  mouse

 
T66‑p GRGQGRGtAMPGEEV
S76 PGEEVLESsQEALHV
S77‑p GEEVLESsQEALHVt
T84‑p sQEALHVtERKYLKR
K87 ALHVtERKYLKRDWC
T165‑p CPELQPPtKKKRVTR
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