Accepts ubiquitin from the E1 complex and catalyzes its covalent attachment to other proteins. In vitro catalyzes 'Lys- 11'-, as well as 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination. Cooperates with the E2 CDC34 and the SCF(FBXW11) E3 ligase complex for the polyubiquitination of NFKBIA leading to its subsequent proteasomal degradation. Acts as an initiator E2, priming the phosphorylated NFKBIA target at positions 'Lys-21' and/or 'Lys-22' with a monoubiquitin. Ubiquitin chain elongation is then performed by CDC34, building ubiquitin chains from the UBE2D3-primed NFKBIA- linked ubiquitin. Acts also as an initiator E2, in conjunction with RNF8, for the priming of PCNA. Monoubiquitination of PCNA, and its subsequent polyubiquitination, are essential events in the operation of the DNA damage tolerance (DDT) pathway that is activated after DNA damage caused by UV or chemical agents during S-phase. Associates with the BRCA1/BARD1 E3 ligase complex to perform ubiquitination at DNA damage sites following ionizing radiation leading to DNA repair. Targets DAPK3 for ubiquitination which influences promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear body (PML- NB) formation in the nucleus. In conjunction with the MDM2 and TOPORS E3 ligases, functions ubiquitination of p53/TP53. Supports NRDP1-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of ERBB3 and of BRUCE which triggers apoptosis. In conjunction with the CBL E3 ligase, targets EGFR for polyubiquitination at the plasma membrane as well as during its internalization and transport on endosomes. In conjunction with the STUB1 E3 quality control E3 ligase, ubiquitinates unfolded proteins to catalyze their immediate destruction. Interacts with SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex; when Cullin is neddylated, the interaction between the E2 and the SCF complex is strengthened. Interacts with DAPK3. Interacts with BRCA1; the DNA damage checkpoint promotes the association with BRCA1 after ionizing radiation. Interacts non- covalently with ubiquitin. Belongs to the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. 3 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Ubiquitin conjugating system; Ubiquitin ligase; EC 126.96.36.199; Ligase
Molecular Function: ATP binding; protein binding; ubiquitin-protein ligase activity
Biological Process: apoptosis; BMP signaling pathway; DNA repair; gene expression; innate immune response; MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway; negative regulation of interferon type I production; negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process; protein autoubiquitination; protein modification process; protein monoubiquitination; protein polyubiquitination; protein ubiquitination; toll-like receptor 3 signaling pathway; toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway; toll-like receptor signaling pathway; transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter; transcription, DNA-dependent; transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway; ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process
LTP: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.