a subunit of NF-kappa-B transcription complex, which plays a crucial role in inflammatory and immune responses. The inhibitory effect of I-kappa-B upon NF-kappa-B in the cytoplasm is exerted primarily through the interaction with p65. P65 shows a weak DNA-binding site which could contribute directly to DNA binding in the NF-kappa-B complex. There are five NFkB proteins in mammals (RelA/NFkB-p65, RelB, c-Rel, NF-_B1/NFkB-p105, and NF-_B2/NFkB-p100). They form a variety of homodimers and heterodimers, each of which activates its own characteristic set of genes. Three splice-variant isoforms have been identified. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Nuclear receptor co-regulator; Transcription factor; DNA-binding
Cellular Component: cytoplasm; cytosol; nucleus; protein complex; transcription factor complex
Molecular Function: actinin binding; chromatin binding; chromatin DNA binding; DNA binding; enzyme binding; histone deacetylase binding; identical protein binding; NF-kappaB binding; phosphate binding; protein binding; protein complex binding; protein heterodimerization activity; protein homodimerization activity; protein kinase binding; protein N-terminus binding; RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, enhancer binding; sequence-specific DNA binding; transcription activator binding; transcription factor activity; transcription factor binding; ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Biological Process: activation of NF-kappaB transcription factor; cellular response to stress; cytokine and chemokine mediated signaling pathway; defense response; hair follicle development; inflammatory response; innate immune response; liver development; negative regulation of apoptosis; negative regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway; negative regulation of protein catabolic process; negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; negative regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; organ morphogenesis; positive regulation of cell proliferation; positive regulation of chondrocyte differentiation; positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade; positive regulation of interleukin-12 biosynthetic process; positive regulation of Schwann cell differentiation; positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; positive regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; regulation of inflammatory response; regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; response to bacterium; response to cytokine stimulus; response to muramyl dipeptide; response to organic substance; response to UV-B; transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; transcription, DNA-dependent
LTP: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.