The insulin-like growth factors, isolated from plasma, are structurally and functionally related to insulin but have a much higher growth-promoting activity. May be a physiological regulator of [1-14C]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) transport and glycogen synthesis in osteoblasts. Stimulates glucose transport in rat bone-derived osteoblastic (PyMS) cells and is effective at much lower concentrations than insulin, not only regarding glycogen and DNA synthesis but also with regard to enhancing glucose uptake. Defects in IGF1 are the cause of insulin-like growth factor I deficiency (IGF1 deficiency). IGF1 deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by growth retardation, sensorineural deafness and mental retardation. Belongs to the insulin family. 3 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Motility/polarity/chemotaxis; Secreted; Secreted, signal peptide
Biological Process: activation of MAPK activity; activation of protein kinase B; alveolus development; blood vessel remodeling; branching morphogenesis of a tube; cell activation; cell development; cell proliferation; chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan biosynthetic process; detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception; exocrine pancreas development; glial cell differentiation; inner ear development; insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway; lung development; mammary gland development; memory; multicellular organism growth; muscle hypertrophy; myoblast differentiation; myoblast proliferation; myotube cell development; negative regulation of apoptosis; negative regulation of caspase activity; negative regulation of cell proliferation; negative regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation; nervous system development; phosphoinositide 3-kinase cascade; phosphoinositide-mediated signaling; positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation; positive regulation of cell growth; positive regulation of cell migration; positive regulation of cell proliferation; positive regulation of DNA binding; positive regulation of DNA replication; positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation; positive regulation of fat cell differentiation; positive regulation of fibroblast proliferation; positive regulation of glucose import; positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process; positive regulation of glycolysis; positive regulation of granule cell precursor proliferation; positive regulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway; positive regulation of MAPKKK cascade; positive regulation of mitosis; positive regulation of osteoblast differentiation; positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation; positive regulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase cascade; positive regulation of protein import into nucleus, translocation; positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling cascade; positive regulation of protein secretion; positive regulation of Ras protein signal transduction; positive regulation of smooth muscle cell migration; positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation; positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; positive regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat5 protein; protein kinase B signaling cascade; protein stabilization; proteoglycan biosynthetic process; regulation of calcium ion transport; regulation of cell proliferation; regulation of establishment and/or maintenance of cell polarity; regulation of gene expression; regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process; regulation of protein amino acid phosphorylation; regulation of protein metabolic process; regulation of steroid hormone receptor signaling pathway; regulation of translation; response to heat; satellite cell compartment self-renewal involved in skeletal muscle regeneration; sensory perception of smell; water homeostasis
LTP: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.