The insulin-like growth factors, isolated from plasma, are structurally and functionally related to insulin but have a much higher growth-promoting activity. May be a physiological regulator of [1-14C]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) transport and glycogen synthesis in osteoblasts. Stimulates glucose transport in rat bone-derived osteoblastic (PyMS) cells and is effective at much lower concentrations than insulin, not only regarding glycogen and DNA synthesis but also with regard to enhancing glucose uptake. Defects in IGF1 are the cause of insulin-like growth factor I deficiency (IGF1 deficiency). IGF1 deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by growth retardation, sensorineural deafness and mental retardation. Belongs to the insulin family. 3 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Secreted, signal peptide; Motility/polarity/chemotaxis; Secreted
Biological Process: aging; alveolus development; blood coagulation; blood vessel remodeling; branching morphogenesis of a tube; cell activation; cell motility; cell proliferation; cellular protein metabolic process; cellular response to insulin stimulus; chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan biosynthetic process; detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception; DNA replication; exocrine pancreas development; female pregnancy; glial cell differentiation; glycolate metabolic process; inner ear development; insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway; mammary gland development; memory; multicellular organism growth; muscle development; muscle hypertrophy; myoblast differentiation; myoblast proliferation; myotube cell development; negative regulation of apoptosis; negative regulation of cell proliferation; negative regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation; phosphoinositide 3-kinase cascade; phosphoinositide-mediated signaling; platelet activation; platelet degranulation; positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation; positive regulation of cell growth; positive regulation of cell migration; positive regulation of cell proliferation; positive regulation of DNA binding; positive regulation of DNA replication; positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation; positive regulation of fat cell differentiation; positive regulation of fibroblast proliferation; positive regulation of glucose import; positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process; positive regulation of glycolysis; positive regulation of granule cell precursor proliferation; positive regulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway; positive regulation of MAPKKK cascade; positive regulation of mitosis; positive regulation of osteoblast differentiation; positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation; positive regulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase cascade; positive regulation of protein import into nucleus, translocation; positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling cascade; positive regulation of protein secretion; positive regulation of Ras protein signal transduction; positive regulation of smooth muscle cell migration; positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation; positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; positive regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat5 protein; protein kinase B signaling cascade; protein stabilization; proteoglycan biosynthetic process; Ras protein signal transduction; regulation of calcium ion transport; regulation of establishment and/or maintenance of cell polarity; regulation of gene expression; regulation of multicellular organism growth; regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process; regulation of translation; response to activity; response to caffeine; response to glucocorticoid stimulus; response to heat; response to hypoxia; response to lipopolysaccharide; response to nicotine; response to nutrient; satellite cell compartment self-renewal involved in skeletal muscle regeneration; signal transduction; skeletal development; water homeostasis
LTP: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.