Chemoattractant for blood monocytes, memory T-helper cells and eosinophils. Causes the release of histamine from basophils and activates eosinophils. Binds to CCR1, CCR3, CCR4 and CCR5. One of the major HIV-suppressive factors produced by CD8+ T- cells. Recombinant RANTES protein induces a dose-dependent inhibition of different strains of HIV-1, HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). The processed form RANTES(3-68) acts as a natural chemotaxis inhibitor and is a more potent inhibitor of HIV-1-infection. The second processed form RANTES(4-68) exhibits reduced chemotactic and HIV-suppressive activity compared with RANTES(1-68) and RANTES(3-68) and is generated by an unidentified enzyme associated with monocytes and neutrophils. By mitogens. T-cell and macrophage specific. Belongs to the intercrine beta (chemokine CC) family. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Secreted; Chemokine; Cell adhesion; Motility/polarity/chemotaxis; Secreted, signal peptide
Cellular Component: extracellular region; extracellular space
Molecular Function: CCR1 chemokine receptor binding; CCR4 chemokine receptor binding; CCR5 chemokine receptor binding; chemoattractant activity; chemokine activity; chemokine receptor antagonist activity; chemokine receptor binding; phosphoinositide phospholipase C activity; phospholipase activator activity; protein binding; protein homodimerization activity; protein kinase activity; protein self-association; receptor signaling protein tyrosine kinase activator activity
Biological Process: calcium ion transport; cell-cell signaling; cellular calcium ion homeostasis; cellular protein complex assembly; dendritic cell chemotaxis; eosinophil chemotaxis; exocytosis; G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway; inflammatory response; leukocyte adhesion; lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway; macrophage chemotaxis; MAPKKK cascade; monocyte chemotaxis; negative regulation of G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway; negative regulation of viral genome replication; neutrophil activation; neutrophil chemotaxis; phospholipase D activation; positive regulation of calcium ion transport; positive regulation of cell adhesion; positive regulation of cell migration; positive regulation of cell-cell adhesion mediated by integrin; positive regulation of cellular biosynthetic process; positive regulation of GTPase activity; positive regulation of homotypic cell-cell adhesion; positive regulation of inflammatory response; positive regulation of innate immune response; positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade; positive regulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase cascade; positive regulation of phosphorylation; positive regulation of smooth muscle cell migration; positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation; positive regulation of T cell proliferation; positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein; positive regulation of viral genome replication; protein kinase B signaling cascade; protein tetramerization; regulation of chronic inflammatory response; regulation of insulin secretion; regulation of T cell activation; response to toxin; response to virus
LTP: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.